This module is a primer that introduces the reader to basic elements of geology: minerals, rocks, earthquakes, geologic time and the interior of our planet. It forms the foundations needed to understand geologic processes and more specific parts of the field, such as petroleum geology.
The main objective of this module is to provide an insight into seismic and gravimetric data and methods, and describing their applications in exploration and seismic reservoir monitoring of producing subsurface reservoir.
Basic Seismic Signal Theory and Processing
This module gives an introduction to basic seismic signal theory and processing. The main applications of seismic processing are within hydrocarbon exploration, coal exploration and engineering/environmental investigations. More recently many of these methods have also been adopted by the ground-penetrating radar community.
The purpose of this module is to give an introduction to elastic waves. Basic knowledge about waves and elastic media is fundamental to understand modern use of seismic data and its link to rock physics and reservoir characterization and monitoring.
Explains the concept of controlled source electromagnetic, and the physics behind using it as a possible direct hydrocarbon indicator.
In reservoir monitoring one needs to link together physics of fluid-flow, rock mechanics/physics and seismic wave propagation constrained by a reservoir geological description. This module gives a brief introduction to these topics before moving on to discuss reservoir simulations and 4D seismic.
The purpose of this module is to give an introduction to how to compute seismic properties of porous fluid-filled rocks. Basic knowledge of the possible effects of porosity, pore fluid, pressure and lithology on seismic parameters, are of severe importance for fully utilizing seismic data in exploration and reservoir monitoring.
The purpose of this module is to give a brief overview of the most common geophysical techniques used today with special emphasize on marine seismic data acquisition. 3-D data acquisition and ocean-bottom (or 4-C) seismic are given the main focus, but also downhole seismic methods (VSP and crosshole) are briefly covered.
Seismic attribute analysis is an important topic in modern seismic data processing. Such attributes have the potential to serve as direct hydrocarbon indicators, and to give useful information about the lithology.
Basic seismic processing is based on the assumption of a horizontally layered Earth model. Hence, data sorted in CMP-gathers represent repeated time-measurements after NMO-correction. In this module we will discuss advanced seismic processing, which is based on wave-equation methods. Differently from the classical time-signal approach, time and space is now linked together.
The objective of survey planning is to determine the optimal acquisition geometry, given certain constraints in time and cost. This can for example be achieved by doing simulated seismic surveys on a representative geological model to examine various types of data coverage.